Phased Array Ultratonic Testing (PAUT)

Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing (PAUT) is an advanced nondestructive examination technique that utilizes a set of ultrasonic testing (UT) probes made up of numerous small elements, each of which is pulsed individually with computer-calculated timing. At Rapid Methodical Testing Private Limited our experts use this method to inspect more complex geometries that are difficult and much slower to inspect with single probes. PAUT can be used to inspect almost any material where traditional UT methods have been utilized, and is often used for weld inspections and crack detection.

PAUT has several advantages over traditional UT. PAUT can be conducted more quickly than other forms of ultrasonic testing, often within a fraction of a second. It can easily be used for repeat scans because it has a high degree of repeatability. By emitting beams of multiple different angles sequentially, PAUT is able to create detailed and accurate cross-sections of a part. It is also particularly useful in situations where there is less room for mechanical scanning because it’s able to sweep the beam without moving the probe.

TTIS Ventures Private Limited provides Phased Array Ultrasonic Testing for:

  • Corrosion Mapping.

  • Inspection of weld joints of cladded reactor.

  • PAUT on weld joints of pipeline.

  • PAUT on Nozzles.

  • PAUT on boiler tubes.

  • PAUT on SS, Inconel and other highly attenuating materials.

  • Customized Solutions (Skirt joint of coke Drum, Flange inspection).

Time of Flight Deflection (ToFD)

At TTIS Ventures Private Limited, our experts use Time of Flight Diffraction (TOFD) which is a reliable method of nondestructive ultrasonic testing (UT) used to look for flaws in welds. TOFD uses the time of flight of an ultrasonic pulse to find the location of a reflector. It can also be used for weld overlays and the heat affected zones of other components as well such as piping, pressure vessels, clad material and storage tanks.

Like most UT methods, TOFD works by emitting sound waves into a component and measuring the time from them to return. In TOFD rather than measuring only for the high amplitude sound waves that reflects off of the back of the component, it instead measures the response time of low amplitude waves that are diffracted by the tips of cracks. TOFD uses a pair of ultrasonic transducers, one as a transmitter and the other as a receiver. The low frequency waves propagate at an angle and only diffract back to the receiver if they hit a defect. If this happens, the time it takes for both waves to make it to the receiver can be used to create a complete image of the weld and identify the size and location of the damage.

TOFD is one of the fastest methods of nondestructive testing because generally only one scan is required to find any defect information within the weld. It can locate and measure the size of many different types of defects with incredible precision. It also has a high degree of repeatability. Because of this, the growth of any flaws can be tracked over time.

TTIS Ventures Private Limited provides Time-of-flight diffraction for:

  • Inspection of weld joints of cladded reactor.

  • TOFD on weld joints of pipeline.


Full Matrix Capture (FMC) is an advanced data collection and reconstruction technique using PAUT probes. It uses synthetic focusing and computer algorithms for processing resulting in a picture-like visualization of the area being examined. In this technique, all emitting elements of the probe emit ultrasound into the test material and all the elements record the returned signal. This data is then processed and organized as a matrix.

The resulting matrix can be processed by algorithms to produce the image. This process is called Total Focusing Method (TFM). The data reconstruction happens on a defined zone where each point is constructed from the information recorded by each probe element while taking the various delays into consideration. TFM comes in multiple modes depending on the transverse or longitudinal nature of the reflected ultrasonic waves.


  • Increased resolution of the indications with great definition and a picture-like image

  • Better characterization of the indications

  • Increased signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) compared to regular PAUT

  • Better representation of the profile of a corroded surface.

Ultrasonic Testing

Ultrasonic testing uses a transducer to introduce ultrasonic waves into a material, which travel along a straight path and at a constant speed until they encounter a surface. This causes some of the energy from the wave to be reflected back, while the rest is transmitted. These reflections can be analyzed to provide information regarding the size and location of the discontinuity encountered.

Ultrasonic flaw detection can potentially be applied to any standard engineering material to find hidden cracks, voids, porosity, inclusion, and similar discontinuities. While most tests involve steel and other structural metals, flaw detectors can also be used on plastics, composites, fiberglass, and ceramics.

Primary metal products such as ingots, bars, plates, and tubes are the raw material from which numerous products are made. Since flaws in the material will result in flaws in the finished products, these primary products are commonly inspected at their origin.

TTIS Ventures Private Limited Provides Ultrasonic Testing using the following methods:

  • Ultrasonic flaw detection using Zero Degree

  • Ultrasonic flaw detection using Angle Beam

  • Ultrasonic flaw detection on CS and LS weld joints

  • Ultrasonic flaw detection on T,K and Y joint